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Indigenous Ways of Knowing & Being
History, On-the-Land, Nutrition, Social Studies, Biology, Art, Chemistry, Health, Indigenous Language

10, 11, Youth (up to age 30), 4

Acknowledgement Protocol

Please read this Acknowledgement before the start of this lesson to respect the knowledge that is being shared and the Land of the People where the knowledge originates:

Note: As long as the 'Acknowledgement Protocol' is followed to honour the Land and the People where a lesson plan originates, lesson plans appearing on NCCIE.CA may be adapted to different places and different ages of learners. What is the Land Acknowledgement where you live?   Read More


Name Role/Job Title Place
Belinda Daniels
Steffany Salloum
Bettina Schneider

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this lesson plan, students will be able to:

1. Respect and appreciate the traditional steps needed to tan a hide. The teaching from Elders is a gift and the knowledge being passed on is so valuable to the continuation of Indigenous cultural practices. [Broad Areas of Learning]

2. Working together as a community and learning from Elders in a social environment, rather than a traditional classroom is of utmost value. In the trappers and traders game, students will learn about trading and sharing of goods and services. This can even get into the restrictions placed on Indigenous hunters, traders and trappers by the Canadian government and Indian agents. [Cross-Curricular Competencies]

3. Examine the impact of contact on Indigenous economy and the relationship within the Canadian economy, the land, environment, and newcomers through a process of reconciliation. 

  • Realize that traditional knowledge has value and a place in society today.
  • State the importance of preserving Indigenous knowledge.
  • Analyze Indigenous participation in artistic economic endeavours. 
  • Display knowledge of the economic experiences of Indigenous peoples and the need for these skill sets to live on in the next generation.

Teachers' Guide


  • Physical (e.g., Tactile, Experiential, Visual) Learners
Title Type


This section contains information for assessing progress in students' learning. While Indigenous approaches to assessment may be highlighted, conventional assessment methods may also be discussed:

Related resources on NCCIE.ca

Title Type
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 1 – Introducing Buffalo People Arts Institute Link
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 2 – Making a Buffalo Bone Scraping Tool Link
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 3 – Preparing the Buffalo Hide for Scraping Link
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 4 – Scraping a Buffalo Hide Link
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 5 – Dry Scraping the Epidermal Layer Link
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 6 – Braining a Buffalo Hide Link
Buffalo Hide Tanning and Teachings – Part 7 – Smoking a Buffalo Hide Link

Where can I find additional information?

Title Type
Hide Tanning The Woods Cree Way Link
Hide Tanning The Traditional 13 Steps Link
Saskatchewan Archaeological Society Link

Holism and All Our Relations

This lesson plan has been developed with an Indigenous lens that is holistic in nature, a way of being and knowing that acknowledges our relationships with 'all our relations', including plants and animals, other human beings, the water, land, wind, sun, moon, stars, and more - everything seen and unseen. With 'all our relations' in mind, this lesson plan has been developed with a focus on:

Relationship with the land
On-the-land/outdoor learning experiences
Language and Culture
Intergenerational learning with Elders/Knowledge Holders
Ethics in the classroom: care, truthfulness and trust, respect, integrity
Relationship with family, ancestors
Connections with everyday life
Participatory and experiential learning activities
Healthy relationship with self and identity
Personal reflection time (connecting with thoughts and feelings)

Lesson Plan Length

Estimated Length (hh:mm): 3:10
(includes time for instruction, activities, self-reflection, and assessment, if applicable)

Other Details

Unit Plan Title:
Stream: General, Academic
Meets curriculum expectations or outcomes for: Saskatchewan

Lesson Plan Topics


Please contact Bettina Schneider  for more information.